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Illustration of the Main Gate at Aoyama During the Imperial Funeral Ceremony

Oka Shikanosuke (1898-1978)

Japanese Color Woodblock Print 

Illustration of the Main Gate at Aoyama During the Imperial Funeral Ceremony, 1912

by Hanpo


Snow at Kinkaku Temple from the series New Selection of Noted Places of Kyoto

IHL Cat. #1683

About This Print

Bordered in black, this is one of two prints (the other being a hexaptych) created by the artist picturing the September 13, 1912 evening funeral procession of Emperor Meiji from the Imperial Palace to the Aoyama military parade grounds.  As seen in the print, the emperor's gold and lacquer hearse is about to pass through the toriis and enter Aoyama.

While not completely accurate in its detail, the print captures the solemnity of the funeral procession illuminated by lanterns and torches.  Donald Keene's description of the funeral cortege and procession follows as does an overview of the funeral ceremonies from the date of the emperor’s death on July 30, 1912 until his internment in south of Kyoto on September 14 at 7:00 pm.

A song of mourning (transcribed below) appears in the pink cartouche in the upper left hand corner of the triptych.

For a print announcing the funeral for the Empress Dowager Eishō, the arrangements for which were the precedent for the Emperor's funeral see IHL Cat. #1809, Empress Dowager Eishō’s Imperial Funeral, 1897.

The Funeral Procession as Described by Donald Keene
Source: Emperor of Japan: Meiji and His World, 1852-1912, Donald Keene, Columbia University Press, 2002, p. 710-712.

The hearse, roofed in Chinese style like the one used at the funeral of Dowager Empress Eishō, was lacquered black all over and decorated with more than 3,000 metal ornaments, the whole weighing more than three tons.  The hearse was drawn by five specially chosen oxen.  At eight, when it was already quite dark, the solemn procession began to move slowly from the court entrance, illuminated by lanterns.  The procession was headed by the former chief chamberlain, Tokudaiji Sanetsune, Chamberlain Hōjō Ujiyasu, and Master of the Horse Fujinami Kototada, dressed in formal robes of mourning and wearing swords; they and other nobles pulled the ropes of the funeral carriage. Two nobles who had personally served the late emperor walked on either side of the carriage, holding aloft torches to illuminate the way.

Source: Splendid Monarchy: Power and Pageantry in Modern Japan, T. Fujitani,
University of California Press, 1998, p. 153.

The funeral cortege was led by two offers bearing torches.  They were followed by some 300 men carrying torches, drums, bells, white flags, yellow flags, quivers, bows, shields, halberds, imperial pennants decorated with the sun and moon, and chests containing articles of war and of Shintō worship.  These men, in rows of two or three, served as an advanced guard for the hearse.  Other officials followed, and the hearse itself was preceded by fifty Yase no dōji [men from Yase who were called “doji" or boys because they did not shave their front locks, who traditionally served as palanquin bearers for the imperial family] in two ranks.  Officials, including chamberlains, who had personally served the late emperor walked close to the hearse and directly behind them came other chamberlains.

The hearse arrived at 10:56 P.M. at the Aoyama funeral hall.  Officers representing the emperor, empress, and empress dowager went out to meet the hearse which, after passing through the first and second tori, was taken into a curtained enclosure in front of the funeral hall.  Here the oxen were released from the shafts of the hearse, and the coffin was carried into the funeral hall.... The services ended at 12:45 in the morning of September 14.

Postcard of the hearse and procession

Overview of Funeral Ceremonies
Source: "The Funerals of the Japanese Emperors," Francois Mace, appearing in the Nanzan Bulletin 13, 1989, p. 26 - 29. https://nirc.nanzan-u.ac.jp/nfile/1853

On July 30,1912,at 12:43 in the morning, the Emperor of Japan died. With the Emperor’s death the Meiji era came to an end and a new era, the first year of the Taisho era, began. On August 13,1912,the body of the deceased sovereign was transferred to the hinkyū 殯广呂,the “palace of temporary interment,” which had been prepared in the central pavilion of the palace. Every ten days, for a period of 50 days, offerings of food and textiles were placed before the coffin and eulogies delivered. On August 29,the deceased was given the posthumous name of Emperor Meiji, under which name he has been known from then on. On September 4,the diplomatic corps were invited to pay a visit to the pavilion of temporary interment. As dean of the diplomatic corps the ambassador of Great Britain deposited a silver crown. On September 13,one month and a half after the demise, the memorial tablet carrying the name of the Emperor was placed in his private chambers, while outside the funeral was being held on the military terrain of Aoyama 肯山 . At 7:00 in the evening the body was carried from the palace and placed in a gold and lacquer decorated chariot drawn by five oxen. The mortuary parade consisted of three hundred persons carrying torches, drums, gongs, banners, bows, shields, and lances. The procession was joined by the army band and by a group of youths from Yase 八瀨 ,a village situated to the northeast of the ancient capital, Kyoto. The streets had been covered with sand and decorated with white-and-black cloths and lanterns. At 10 o'clock in the evening the procession arrived at the site of the ceremony after having passed under two gates, torii 鳥居,identical to those found at the entrance of Shinto shrines. At 11:15 the last rites, salutes, offerings, and funerary eulogies started. It was during this same night that General Nogi 乃木, victor over the Russians in 1904 and national hero, and his wife committed ritual suicide, in order to accompany the Emperor in death. A sanctuary, consecrated to Emperor Meiji and his spouse, was later erected on the site of the funerary ceremonies: the Meiji Jingu, now in the heart of Tokyo. On September 14,at 1:00 in the morning, two special trains transported the mortuary convoy to Kyoto. At 7:00 in the evening the body was placed in a sarcophagus, surrounded by haniwa 埴 輪 (terra cotta figurines) mounted on a cylinder, inside a burial mound situated to the south of the ancient capital. On the morning of the 15th, a last funerary ceremony took place in front of this mound.

One year later, the memorial tablet inscribed with the name of the deceased Emperor was placed together with the tablets of his ancestors.  In November of the same year, the new Emperor celebrated the solemn partaking of the first fruits, a ceremony which since ancient times constituted an obligatory complement to to the enthronement rites.

Such were the ceremonies held for the Emperor who had succeeded in modernizing Japan so as to safeguard its independence.

Song of Mourning

 
click on image to enlarge
Sources: http://rasensuisha.cocolog-nifty.com/kingetsureikou/2014/11/index.html and http://tokyosigaku.jugem.jp/?eid=277

奉悼歌 Song of Mourning. The music was composed by Akataro Shimazaki
島崎赤太郎 (1874-1933), professor at The Tokyo Music School 東京音楽学校, with lyrics composed by Motoori Toyokai 本居豊頴 (1838-1913), tanka poet and scholar of Japanese literature.

一、八洲の外の海かけて 御稜威輝く天津日の 光を隠す黒雲に
      降るは涙の天の下 世は暗(やみ)とこそなりにけれ

二、千代萬代も在ませと 祈り奉(まつ)りし我君よ 帰らぬ途の おほ行幸(みゆき)
        泣けどさけべどその甲斐も なき今日とこそなりにけれ

Print Details

 IHL Catalog
 #1683
 Title or Description
 Illustration of the Main Gate at Aoyama During the Imperial Funeral Ceremony
 Aoyama Gotaisō shikijō sōmonzen no zu
 青山御大葬式場総門前の図
 Series  
 Artist  Hanpo (active 1904-1912)
 Signature
謹画
Hanpo kinga (respectfully drawn) 
 Seal of the Artist    hōtō seal
 Publication Date  1912 Meiji 45/Taishō 1 (大正元年 as shown in publisher's seal below)
 Publisher
武川卯之吉 Takekawa Unokichi
[firm name: Unosuke]
 

向島寺島新田  千九百
十三
Mukōjima Terashimashinden 1943

[Marks: pub. ref. 522; seal not shown]
 Carver
平嶋彫刻 Hirashima or Hirajima chōkoku
 Impression  excellent
 Colors  excellent
 Condition  good - three sheets joined together and backed with heavy album paper; two vertical folds; light soiling 
 Genre  nishiki-e; 
 Miscellaneous
 Format  horizontal ōban triptych
 H  x W Paper  13 7/8 x 28 1/8 in. (35.2 x 71.4 cm)
 H x W Image  13 7/8 x 28 1/8 in. (35.2 x 71.4 cm)
 Literature 
 
 Collections This Print
 Museum of Fine Arts, Boston 2000.2888a-c; Tokyo Digital Museum 99200043, 99200045
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