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Chikubushima (Hōgon-ji) from the Picture Album of the Thirty-Three Pilgrimage Places of the Western Provinces

Nakazawa Hiromitsu (1874-1964)

Japanese Color Woodblock Print

Chikubushima (Hōgon-ji, temple 30)

from the Picture Album of the Thirty-Three Pilgrimage Places of the Western Provinces

by Nakazawa Hiromitsu, 1925 and 1946

Illustrated Account of the Sino-Japanese War, Volume 7


IHL Cat. #2313 (1925)

IHL Cat. #2413.38 (1925)
(from the complete 1925 album of prints IHL Cat. #2413)

IHL Cat. #2252 (1946)

About This Print


It is unclear to me exactly which temple building Nakazawa depicts in this print. It may be the main temple building with a view of Lake Biwa off to the right. Hōgon-ji, the thirtieth temple on the Saigoku Kannon Pilgrimage sits on Chikubu Island in the north of Lake Biwa, Japan's largest freshwater lake. 

On December 1923, only a few months after the Great Kantō Earthquake devastated the Tokyo area, Nakazawa along with his two friends, the poet Ishikura Suiyō and the artist Akatsuka Chūichi, began their pilgrimage to the thirty-three temples comprising the Saigoku Kannon Pilgrimage, taking seventy-eight days to complete the route.


The Temple

Situated on Chikubushima Island 竹生岛, Lake Biwa, Hōgon-ji 宝厳寺 (originally named Hongō-ji 本業寺) is the 30th temple along the Saigoku Kannon Pilgrimage. The temple was founded by the priest Gyoki (668-749) after he received an imperial edict issued by Emperor Shōmu (reigned 724-749) to build a Buddhist temple dedicated to the goddess Benzaiten who supposedly lived on the island after it formed.

The temple has been rebuilt a few times over the years, with a major rebuilding around 1602 by the Japanese court officials Toyotomi Hideyori and Toyotomi Hideyoshi. Its Karamon (Chinese Gate) is a National Treasure. Tsukubusuma Sanctuary (Chikubushima Sanctuary) was moved from Kyoto to the island in 1602 or 1603. 

The main enshrined image (honzon) of the temple is the bodhisattva Kannon Senju Sengen.

Comparison of 1925 and 1946 Issues
This collection contains prints from both the 1925 and 1946 releases. I prefer the earlier release which has a more painterly quality, likely closer to the artist's original drawing the print was based upon.

The two editions (1925 left, 1946 right) show significant differences suggesting either
extensive touching-up of the original blocks or newly carved blocks.

The Saigoku Kannon Pilgrimage (Saigoku sanjūsansho junrei) 

Japan's most famous pilgrimage, originating in the 11th century, encompasses 33 Buddhist temples in Western Japan (Kansai region) dedicated to Kannon (bodhisattva Avalokitasvara), the Bodhisattva of Compassion, who hears the cries of the world and assists anyone in distress.

The 33 temples on the approximately 1,000 kilometer pilgrimage route correspond to Kannon's ability to take on 33 different forms. One hundred thousand pilgrims navigate the route in its entirety or part each year.

Note: For a listing of all 33 temples go to https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saigoku_Kannon_Pilgrimage. To access an interactive map of the route and its temples go to https://www.thetempleguy.org/p/saigoku-33-kannon-route.html and scroll down towards the bottom of the page.

About the "Picture Album of the Thirty-Three Pilgrimage Places of the Western Provinces" 

First issued in 1925 and reprinted in 1946, the 1925 album contains 58 prints and the 1946 album 59 prints. For detailed discussion of the two editions and additional information on the Saigoku Kannon Pilgrimage see this site's article Nakazawa Hiromitsu - Picture Album of the Thirty-Three Pilgrimage Places of the Western Provinces.

Nakazawa Hiromitsu - Picture Album of the Thirty-Three Pilgrimage Places of the Western Provinces
click on the image to go to the article

Print Details

 IHL Catalog
 #2313 and #2413.38 (1925 release) and #2252 (1946 release)
 Title or Description   Chikubushima (Hōgon-ji, temple 30)
  竹生岛 (宝厳寺, 三十)
 Series  Picture Album of the Thirty-Three Pilgrimage Places of the Western Provinces
 西国三十三所巡礼画巻 Saigoku sanjūsansho junrei gakan
 Artist  Nakazawa Hiromitsu (1874-1964)
 Signature
IHL Cat. #2313 and #2413.38 (1925 releases):  中澤弘光 [Nakazawa Hiromitsu] printed in lower right margin as shown left

 IHL Cat. #2252 (1946 release): no signature
 Seal of the artist

IHL Cat. #2313 and #2413.38
(1925 release)
弘 Hiro
 IHL Cat. #2252
(1946 release) 
弘 Hiro
 Publication Date  IHL Cat. #2313 and #2413,38: Published September 28, 1925 大正十四年九月十八日発行 as printed in the 1925 album's colophon (see Album Box with Print of Kannon IHL Cat. 2413).
Note: an earlier date of June 15, 1925 大正十四年六月十五日 appears in the right margin of the print titled Matsunoo-dera [IHL Cat. #2245], the only print in the 1925 album which carries a date. This earlier date, however, is the date that the censor's approval was obtained, as further explained on this site's web page for Matsunoo-dera, rather than the publishing date.

 IHL Cat. #2252: January 18, 1946 昭和二十一年一月十八日発行 [Individual prints in the 1946 release are not dated. This date taken from a 1946 album colophon.]
 Publisher  發行者 金尾種次郎 publisher Kanao Tanejirō
 發兌元 金尾文淵堂 publishing house Kanao Bun'endō
 
IHL Cat. #2313 and #2413.38 (1925 releases): 文淵堂版 [Bun'endō han] printed in lower right margin as shown left

IHL Cat. #2252 (1946 release): no publisher seal

 Carver  Okada Seijirō 岡田清次郎
Note: the album's colophon (see Album Box with Print of Kannon IHL Cat. 2413) lists two carvers, the above well-known Okada Seijirō and 大倉藤太郎, possibly read Okura Tōtarō, who I can find no information on. 
 Printer  IHL Cat. #2313 and #2413.38 (1925 releases):  Nishimura Kumakichi 西村熊吉
Note: the colophon for the 1925 album (see Album Box with Print of Kannon IHL Cat. 2413) lists three printers, the above well-known Nishmura Kumakichi; 山県秀助, possibly read Yamagata Hidesuki, who I can find no information on, and 松本兄弟堂, a company founded in Osaka by Matsumoto Kisaburō 松本喜三郎 in 1923, which I believe did the letterpress printing. 

 IHL Cat. #2252 (1946 release): Nishimura Kumakichi 西村熊吉 and
Takagi Seikō (Takagi Kiyomitsu?) 高木淸光
Note: the above information is taken from the colophon included in the 1946 release. I could find no information on the second printer listed for the 1946 release 高木淸光.

Note on Nishimura Kumakichi: listed as one of the printers for both the 1925 and 1946 release, there is some uncertainty about the date of his death, although a birth date, either 1861 or 1862 [Guide to Modern Japanese Woodblock Prints, Merritt, p. 223], is generally accepted. A death date of 1941 is sometimes given and 1955 has been suggested, but Merritt provides no date of death. If he truly did the printing for the 1946 release he would have been around 85 at that time. 
 Impression  IHL Cat. #2313 (1925 release): excellent
 IHL Cat. #2413.38 (1925 release): excellent
 IHL Cat. #2252 (1946 release): good
 Colors  IHL Cat. #2313 (1925 release): excellent
 IHL Cat. #2413.38 (1925 release): excellent
 IHL Cat. #2252 (1946 release): excellent
 Condition  IHL Cat. #2313 (1925 release): excellent - minor marks and light toning
 IHL Cat. #2413.38 (1925 release): excellent -minor marks; diagonal handling folds along upper left margin
 IHL Cat. #2252 (1946 release): good - overall mild toning  
 Genre  shin hanga; shasei kikō (sketch-tour)
 Miscellaneous
temple/print number 30 appearing in the right margin of the 1925 release
 Format  horizontal oban
 H x W Paper 
 IHL Cat. #2313 (1925 release): 10 1/8 x 15 1/4 in. (25.7 x 38.7 cm)
 IHL Cat. #2413.38 (1925 release): 10 1/8 x 15 1/4 in. (25.7 x 38.7 cm)
 IHL Cat. #2252 (1946 release): 9 5/8 x 13 13/16 in. (24.4 x 35.1 cm) 
 H x W Image
 IHL Cat. #2313 (1925 release):  8 9/16 x 11 1/2 in. (21.7 x 29.3 cm)
 IHL Cat. #2413.38 (1925 release): 8 9/16 x 11 1/2 in. (21.7 x 29.3 cm)
 IHL Cat. #2252 (1946 release): 8 1/2 x 11 7/16 in. (21.6 x 29.1 cm)
 Literature   Nakazawa Hiromitsu kenkyū: Hon karano kenshō, Hiromitsu Nakazawa, Mitsunobu Satō, et. al., Mitsui Kōkei, Tokyo, 2006, p. 46-48.
 Collections This Print
 National Diet Library Call Number 寄別7-8-2-5 (1925 album, no images displayed); National Library Board, Singapore BRN:9854371 (entire 1946 album, no images shown); British Library System number: 017018582 (entire 1946 album, no images shown)Harvard Yenching Library HOLLIS number 990082993710203941 (1925 album, no images displayed)

last revision:
1/29/2021
12/20/2020
7/4/2020
2/23/2020 created
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