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Nakazawa Hiromitsu - Picture Album of the Thirty-Three Pilgrimage Places of the Western Provinces

WORK IN PROGRESS
Picture Album of the Thirty-Three Pilgrimage
Places of the Western Provinces
西国三十三所巡礼画巻 Saigoku sanjūsansho junrei gakan

First Edition: 1925, Second Edition: 1946

 Portfolio Cover
First Edition: 1925
 Portfolio Cover
Second Edition: 1946

 
Nakazawa Hiromitsu, age 52, 1926
 
Mr. Hiromitsu Nakazawa returns to the inn in Kyoto from his pilgrimage, 1925
巡禮より京の宿に帰れる中澤弘光氏
by Hiromitsu's friend and fellow artist Akatsuka Chūichi (1887-?)

The Artist - Nakazawa Hiromitsu (1874-1964) on Pilgrimage

left to right: Nakazawa Hiromitsu,  Ishikura Suiyō, and
Akatsuka Chūichi, Nara Park, 1924
image source:  scanned from Nakazawa Hiromitsu kenkyū, Hiromitsu Nakazawa, et. al., Mitsui Kōkei, 2006, p. 67.
On December 11, 1923, at the age of 49, the artist and illustrator Nakazawa Hiromitsu 中澤弘光 (1874-1964), accompanied by his friends the haiku poet Ishikura Suiyō 石倉翠葉 (1875-1938), and the Western-style painter Akatsuka Chūichi 赤塚忠一 (1887-?), set off on a pilgrimage to the thirty-three temples that comprise the Saigoku Kannon temples. 

Pictured on the left are the three pilgrims in Nara Park during their 78 day pilgrimage, wearing the latest in men's fashion, a tonbi 
sleeveless overcoat with a hip-length shoulder cape, worn over a kimono, a Western-style hat and, on their feet, traditional geta, to keep them elevated from the mud on the many trails they were to travel on this 1000km (600 mile) trek. (Although one can assume transport other than their own feet was occasionally used.)

It is unknown why they undertook this trip a little over three months after the Great Earthquake that devastated Tokyo, but perhaps it was to find solace in the ancient temples and the company of good friends. Nakazawa, the leader of the trio, was a traveler at heart and a prolific author and illustrator of books and prints in the very 
popular sketch-tour genre, which saw artists traveling throughout the country and the Japanese colonies sketching and writing about the places visited.

In June 1915, fifteen months after the trio completed their pilgrimage, the publisher 
Kanao Tanejirō, who had previously published Nakazawa's sketch-tour books, released the print album titled Saigoku sanjūsansho junrei gakan ("Picture Album
of the Thirty-Three Pilgrimage Places of the Western Provinces") consisting of woodblock prints made from Nakazawa's sketches, poems by Ishikura and one print of Nakazawa resting after his journey by Akatsuka.

The Saigoku Kannon Pilgrimage (Saigoku sanjūsansho junrei) 
accessed: 11/23/2020

Sources: website of cultural anthropologist Martin Gray http://www.taleofgenji.org/saigoku_pilgrimage.html and https://www.revolvy.com/page/Saigoku-Kannon-Pilgrimage and "Buddhist Pilgrim/Buddhist Exile: Old and New Images of Retired Emperor Kazan in the Saigoku Kannon Temple Guidebooks," Mark MacWilliams, appearing in History of Religions , May, 1995, Vol. 34, No. 4, Representations of Rulers, p. 303-328, The University of Chicago Press

Japan's most famous pilgrimage, originating in the 11th century, encompasses 33 Buddhist temples in Western Japan (Kansai region) dedicated to Kannon (bodhisattva Avalokitasvara), the Bodhisattva of Compassion, who hears the cries of the world and assists anyone in distress.

The 33 temples on the approximately 1,000 kilometer pilgrimage route correspond to Kannon's ability to take on 33 different forms. One hundred thousand pilgrims navigate the route in its entirety or part each year.

"It is traditional for pilgrims to wear white clothing and conical straw hats and to carry walking sticks. While the route was historically traveled by foot, today pilgrims usually use cars or trains. Pilgrims record their progress with a prayer book (納経帖 Nōkyō-chō), which the temple staff mark with red stamps and Japanese calligraphy indicating the temple number, the temple name, and the specific name of the Kannon image. Some pilgrims receive the stamps and calligraphy on wall scrolls (for a decorative hanging) and on their white coats (to be cremated in) as well." It is customary for pilgrims to recite goeika (junrei uta) specific to each site upon entering.

Origin of the Saigoku Pilgrimage
The origin of the pilgrimage is largely unknown, although the retired emperor Kazan (968-1008) is popularly credited with founding (or reviving) the Saigoku thirty-three-temple Kannon pilgrimage route. Yet, according to Professor of Religious Studies, Mark MacWilliams, "despite the popular stories, there is no historical evidence linking the retired emperor with the origin of the route. Most scholars agree that the thirty-three-temple route originated at the end of the Heian period, at least a century after Kazan's death. In all likelihood, the actual founders of the route were two Tendai monk-ascetics from Mii-dera, Gyōson (1055-1135) and Kakuchu (1118-1177)."

Goeika - The Waka Poem-Prayers of Each Temple
By the mid-18th century the retired emperor Kazan was also credited with authoring the thirty-three waka poem-prayers (junrei uta or goeika), consisting of thirty-one syllables, which appear at the end of each temple entry and are the major devotional liturgy of the pilgrimage. (Note that the explanatory sheets accompanying Nakazawa's album of prints reproduce the junrei uta for each temple.) Again, MacWilliams tells us that the historical reality does not align with the popular understanding:  "[N]one of the thirty-three junrei uta...are authored by Kazan. Most of the junrei uta were written anonymously over the centuries by ordinary Saigoku pilgrims."

For a listing of all 33 temples go to https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saigoku_Kannon_Pilgrimage. To access an interactive map of the route and its temples go to https://www.thetempleguy.org/p/saigoku-33-kannon-route.html and scroll down towards the bottom of the page.

"Picture Album of the Thirty-Three Pilgrimage Places of the Western Provinces"



First issued in June 1925 and reprinted in January 1946, the 1925 album contained 58 prints plus a table of contents (printed on both sides of a heavy cardboard) and the reprinted 1946 album contained 59 prints (an additional poem being added by the poet Kawai Suimei) plus a table of contents. [fn: See the section "A Needed Clarification" below for images of additional prints that may have been included in some albums]

Print  Details
 7** woodblock prints consisting of written text superimposed over landscapes.
** an additional poem was included in the 1946 reprint as explained above.
 An inscription by University President and Doctor of Religion Mochizuki Shinkō 望月信亨 (1869–1948), followed by three sheets of preface by the Buddhist scholar and historiographer Washio Junkyō (1868-1941), followed by three sheets of poetry by the the tanka poet Sasaki Nobutsuna (1872-1963), Hiromitsu himself and the haiku poet Ishikura Suiyō (1875-1938). 
37 woodblock prints of temples designed by Nakazawa. Thirty-three prints depicting the official temples on the Saigoku Kannon Pilgrimage plus one print depicting the bangai* temple Nata-dera, one print titled On Lake Biwa, one print depicting Amanohashidate and one print of interior scenes of Fujii-dera temple.
*bangai (literally outside the numbers): temples not included in the route, but considered of religious or historical interest as part of the circuit.
7** woodblock prints consisting of written text superimposed over landscapes.
** an additional poem was included in the 1946 reprint as explained above.
An inscription by University President and Doctor of Religion Mochizuki Shinkō 望月信亨 (1869–1948), followed by three sheets of preface by the Buddhist scholar and historiographer Washio Junkyō (1868-1941), followed by three sheets of poetry by the the tanka poet Sasaki Nobutsuna (1872-1963), Hiromitsu himself and the haiku poet Ishikura Suiyō (1875-1938). 
1 woodblock print  Designed by Nakazawa's friend Akatsuka Chūichi 赤塚忠一 (1887-?) depicting Nakazawa relaxing on the veranda of his hotel after completing the pilgrimage. 
11 typeset sheets  Each sheet provides information on three of the thirty-three temples on the Saigoku Kannon Pilgrimage and includes a sketch of the principle image  and the goeika associated with each temple and a haikai composed by Ishikura Suiyō.
 2 woodblock prints of landscapes
End pieces to the set depicting Naichi Falls and Nara Park 


The Original 1925 Release
The 1925 release of this album by the publisher Kanao Tanejirō was one of the early manifestations of moving away from text-based sketch-tour guides in book form, in which illustrations played a secondary role (see this collection's book Kinai kenbutsu, Yamato (Nara) no maki) to more image-centric compilations of oban size single sheet woodblock prints accompanied by explanatory text.  As noted by Scott Johnson,
[T]he sketch-tour books led directly to the more widely known genre of shin-hanga landscape prints. Although the landscape print movement attracted new artists and publishers, many of the figures active in the 'sketch-tour' book genre became pioneers in shin-hanga landscape prints. The popularity of these single-sheet prints ironically prompted the demise of the 'sketch-tour' books themselves.1


The 1925 Original Release with 1946 Additions
source: adopted from Nakazawa Hiromitsu kenkyū, Hiromitsu Nakazawa, et. al., Mitsui Kōkei, 2006, p. 46-48.
click on any of the below images to enlarge


Table of Contents 

Table of Contents
   

 

 

Colophon for 1925 First Edition - Printed on Inside of Carboard Album Enclosure
大正14年九月十五日印刷 大正14年九月十八日発行 金貳五圓 Price 25 yen 發行者 金尾種次郎  編輯者 金尾種次郎 合資会社金尾文淵堂代表者 発行者 金尾種次郎 彫刻及印刷者 岡田清次郎Okada Seijirō 印刷 Printers大倉藤太郎 Okura Tōtarō 西村熊吉 Nishimura Kumakichi・ 山縣秀助 ?・ 松本兄弟堂 Matsumoto Kyōdaidō 製本及製函者 bookbinding and  大杉菊平 永井佐一郎

While the 2006 book Nakazawa Hiromitsu kenkyū [2] records that 1925 release was limited to an edition of 330 copies, I believe individual prints may have been issued outside the limited edition, as can be seen in two different impressions of the print Matsunoo-dera (temple 29), shown below. While both prints carry the date June 15, 1925 in the right margin (大正十四年六月十五日), there are obvious differences in the printings, highlighted by the red arrows, along with the different right margin inscriptions.

Matsunoo-dera
click on image to enlarge
Comparison of two impressions of the print Matsunoo-dera, both dated June 15, 1925 in the right margin (detail shown below) showing obvious differences highlighted by the red arrows.

Right Margin Inscription Detail of Above Prints
 
right column:
大正十四年六月十五日
舞鶴要塞可令部検閲済
Taisho 14th year, sixth month, fifteenth day
Maizuru Yōsai Shireibu kenʾetsu-zumi 
[Maizuru Fort Headquarters Inspection Approval]
left column:
西國三十三所巡禮畫卷 / 九 / 中澤弘光 / (文淵堂版)
Saigoku sanjūsansho junrei gakan [Picture Album of the Thirty-Three Pilgrimage Places of the Western Provinces] / 29 / Nakazawa Hiromitsu / Bun'endō han

大正十四年六月十五日
舞鶴要塞可令部検閲済
Taisho 14th year, sixth month, fifteenth day
Maizuru Yōsai Shireibu kenʾetsu-zumi 
[Maizuru Fort Headquarters Inspection Approval]



The Second Edition 1946 Release
On January 18, 1946, five months after Emperor Hirohito announced Japan's surrender, the same publisher Kanao Tanejirō reprinted the 1925 album, packaging it in a portfolio with a new cover illustration (as shown below) and adding an additional poem by the tanka poet and proponent of free-verse Kawai Suimei (1874-1965). This set of fifty-seven prints was a particularly bold undertaking coming at a time when the materials needed to complete this work, particularly paper, were in short supply. 

 
 
The portfolio on the left was used to package the original 1925 release
and the portfolio on the right was used for the 1946 prints.

1946 Album portfolio, two temple prints and portrait of Hiromitsu relaxing at his hotel by Akatsuka Chūichi 

colophon for 1946 release
發行者 金尾種次郎 publisher Kanao Tanejirō
 發兌元 金尾文淵堂 publishing house Kanao Bun'endō
Okada Seijirō 岡田清次郎 and Ōkura Fujitarō (Ōkura Tōtarō?) 大倉藤太郎
Nishimura Kumakichi 西村熊吉 and Takagi Seikō (Kiyomitsu) 高木淸光

昭和二十一年一月十一日印刷

昭和二十一年一月十八日発行

著作者 中澤弘光

編輯兼 発行者 金尾種次郎 editor and publisher Kanao Tanejirō


木版印刷 西村熊吉 Nishimura Kumakichi 

高木清光 Takagi Seikō (Kiyomitsu), Taishō 3 [1914]

精版印刷 株式會社似玉堂 seihan insatsu Lithograph printing Kabushiki kaisha Jigyokudō

装釘 英社 (英社) binding

發兌元 金尾文淵堂 publishing house Kanao Bun'endō


Comparison of 1925 and 1946 Printings
When trying to distinguish between the 1925 and 1946 editions, the most obvious difference  is the absence of the right margin notations present on the 1925 edition as detailed above.  

While multiple sources say the same blocks were used for both the 1925 and 1946 releases, the prints in the 1946 release have a less "painterly" appearance than the 1925 releases and bolder colors are used in the later release. A better quality paper was used in the 1925 release, which is not surprising given post-war paper shortages. 

Another difference between the 1925 and 1946 releases is the addition of the below print, likely a landscape depicting Nara Park with a poem by Kawai Suimei 河井 酔茗 (1874-1965), known for his tanka and as a proponent for "free verse." [fn The Columbia Anthology of Modern Japanese Literature, Volume 1, From Restoration to Occupation, 1868-1945, ed. J. Thomas Rimer and Van C. Gessel, Columbia University Press, 2005, p. 296.]



A Needed Clarification



 
西國三十三所巡禮畫卷
 

 

 


1 "Sketch-tour Books and Print of the Early Books Twentieth Century" by Scott Johnson, appearing in Andon 37, June 1991, p. 3. 

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