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Brocade Pictures for Moral Education

錦絵修身談 Nishiki-e shūshindan 
Six volumes of text and illustrations with at least 91 accompanying color woodblock prints
DRAFT - WORK IN PROGRESS
A collaborative effort of Yoshitoshi, his students
and the Tokyo publishing house Fukyūsha



 click on image to enlarge
Volume 1, leaf 4
It is a parent’s duty to give their life to save the child*
己の身を捨てゝ子を救ふ
IHL Cat. #734
Ref. ARC AcNo.Z0173-426


artist signature block
Right column: Toshimine 年峯
Left column: followed by the character ()

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Corresponding textbook drawing,
Volume 1
Source: National Diet Library
http://kindai.ndl.go.jp/info:ndljp/pid/757974/1


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Volume 1, leaf 11
Tame/reject wildness/violence with the sincere spirit of a filial child
孝子の精誠能く猛獣を却く
Kôko no makoto yoku takesa
IHL Cat. #430
Ref. ARC AcNo. Z0173-428

artist signature block
Right column: Toshichika
Left column: T
oshimine 年峯 followed by the character 校 ()

click on image to enlarge
Corresponding textbook drawing,
Volume 1
Source: National Diet Library
http://kindai.ndl.go.jp/info:ndljp/pid/757974/1


click on image to enlarge
 Volume 2, leaf 2
孝子食路?其情達



IHL Cat. #743


artist signature block
right column: Inano Toshitsune
left column:
Toshichika



click on image to enlarge
Corresponding textbook drawing,
Volume 2
Source: National Diet Library

http://kindai.ndl.go.jp/info:ndljp/pid/757975/1


  click on image to enlarge
Volume 2, leaf 4
Yuchūkan repairing the manners/world of men
兪仲寛ノ仁一州ノ俗ヲ風化す
Yuchûkan no jin isshû no zoku o fûkasu/naosu
IHL Cat. #429



artist signature block
 Right column: Toshishige
年重 followed by the character for ga (drawn by) 
Left three columns of characters:
() and to its right Toshichika 年親 followed by Toshimitsu 年光



 click on image to enlarge

Corresponding textbook drawing,
Volume 2
Source: National Diet Library

http://kindai.ndl.go.jp/info:ndljp/pid/757975/1
  click on image to enlarge
Volume 2, Leaf 10
If children obey and listen to their father, they will become good persons
IHL Cat. #740







artist signature block
Top: 年方画 Toshikata ga
Bottom left column: 年親 Toshichika
Bottom right column: Toshimine 年峯
校 ()

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Volume 2, leaf 12
Honesty is always rewarded by men or gods
IHL Cat. #732







artist signature block
Right column: Toshimine 年峯



 click on image to enlarge
Corresponding textbook drawing,
Volume 2
Source: National Diet Library

http://kindai.ndl.go.jp/info:ndljp/pid/757975/1



Volume 3, leaf 5
孝子の真情悪人を感化す
IHL Cat. #748


artist signature block







 click on image to enlarge

Corresponding textbook drawing,
Volume 3
Source: National Diet Library
http://kindai.ndl.go.jp/info:ndljp/pid/757976/1





 Volume 3, leaf 13

IHL Cat. #737


artist signature block

 
Volume 3, leaf 15


IHL Cat. #745


artist signature block












 click on image to enlarge
Corresponding textbook drawing,
Volume 3
Source: National Diet Library
http://kindai.ndl.go.jp/info:ndljp/pid/757976/1

 click on image to enlarge 
Volume 3, leaf 16

IHL Cat. #746


artist signature block



Corresponding textbook drawing,
Volume 3
Source: National Diet Library
http://kindai.ndl.go.jp/info:ndljp/pid/757976/1

 click on image to enlarge
Volume 3, leaf 18
勤勉の能く禍を克復す
Overcome a calamity and make restoration with diligence
IHL Cat. #738

artist signature block

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 Volume 4, leaf 7
粗食却って美味となる
Even simple food has good flavor
when shared
IHL Cat. #731


artist signature block



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Volume 4, leaf 8
人の窮死を救ひて主人の賞を得
IHL Cat. #747


artist signature block






click on image to enlarge
Corresponding textbook drawing,
Volume 4
Source: National Diet Library

http://kindai.ndl.go.jp/info:ndljp/pid/757977/1
 click on image to enlarge 
Volume 4, leaf 11

IHL Cat. #744


artist signature block

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Volume 4, leaf 14

IHL Cat. #733


artist signature block







 click on image to enlarge

Corresponding textbook drawing,
Volume 4
Source: National Diet Library

http://kindai.ndl.go.jp/info:ndljp/pid/757977/1


  click on image to enlarge
Volume 4, leaf 16

IHL Cat. #739



artist signature block
Right half: Mizuno Toshikata and Toshikata seal









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Corresponding textbook drawing,
Volume 5

http://kindai.ndl.go.jp/info:ndljp/pid/757978/1



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Volume 4, leaf 22

IHL Cat. #736



artist signature block

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Volume 6, leaf 4

IHL Cat. #741



artist signature block


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Volume 6, leaf 10
Foreign trade in raw silk thread
生糸貿易
IHL Cat. #742




artist signature block

Mizuno Toshikata on right
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Volume 6, leaf 16
Reform/rectify the ruler’s errors with tactful humor
諧虐の風諌能く主の過を改む
Kaigyaku no fûkan yoku shu
no ayamachi o aratamu
IHL Cat. #431

artist signature block
Top: Mizuno Toshikata followed by Toshikata seal
Middle: Kobayashi Toshimitsu
Bottom: unread carver seal

  click on image to enlarge
Volume 6, leaf 20
If you exert yourself in your business
you will succeed
業ハ勉るに成る
IHL Cat. #735





artist signature block

left column:
Toshichika followed by 校 ()







 click on image to enlarge
Corresponding textbook drawing,
Volume 6
http://kindai.ndl.go.jp/info:ndljp/pid/757979/1





About The Series and Textbook Brocade Pictures for Moral Education

These nishiki-e (brocade pictures/prints) were likely issued as accompaniments or supplements to a six volume set of primary school moral instruction textbooks, the covers of which are pictured below. 

 
 

Six volumes that constitute the morals textbook Brocade Pictures of Moral Education.  The names of the author 山名留三郎 (Yamana Tomesaburō), publisher 辻敬之 (Tsuji Keiji, of the publishing house Fukyūsha 普及舎), and compiler 増川蚶雄 (Masukawa Kanyū) are given below the title 錦絵修身談 and volume number.

Both the prints and the instructional texts bear the same title, Brocade Pictures of Moral Education, and were issued by the same Tokyo publisher Fukyūsha 普及舎.  The Japanese title 錦絵修身談 (Brocade Pictures of Moral Education) followed by the volume number, e.g. 巻一 (volume 1), appears along the top of each print as it does on the cover of each textbook volume.  Occasionally black and white drawings illustrating the text, and similar to the color prints, appear in the textbooks, such as the below drawing from volume 1.  All of the drawings, both multi-color and black and white, appearing in the textbooks are credited to Tsukioka Yoshitoshi (1839-1892)1.  Examples are shown below of one of Yoshitoshi's color illustrations and one of his black and white drawings along with its corresponding color print credited to his student Toshichika 年親.  

At least 90 [48 can be seen at http://ir.u-gakugei.ac.jp/images/00089980/kmview.html] color prints were issued to accompany the texts.  Each colored print references the volume number, story number and page number of the portion of the text it is illustrating. Two editions of the color prints were made, the first published in 1883 were likely bound into albums and do not appear with publishing dates, the second published in 1888, shows the original publishing date along with the date of the second printing (再版 saihan.) None of the prints I have seen from the second edition have an album backing, indicating they were sold as stand-alone prints to the general public.

The colored supplemental prints were created by students of Yoshitoshi and they include the artists Mizuno Toshikata (1866-1908) 水野 年方, Tominaga Toshichika 富永 年親 (1847-?), Tsutsui Toshimine 筒井 年峰  or 年峯 (1863-1934) and Inano Toshitsune 稲野 年恒 (1859-1907).2  As further explained below, attribution of each print to an artist is sometimes difficult, due to multiple signatures on each print and the confusion surrounding the names used by some of Yoshitoshi's students.

1 While Yoshitoshi's signature appears on only some of the drawings, the inside cover of Volume 1 of the textbooks credits him with all the drawings.

2 Roger Keyes in his dissertation on Yoshitoshi,  Courage and Silence: A Study of the Life and Color Woodblock Prints of Tsukioka Yoshitoshi: 1839-1952, p. 546, states that Yoshitoshi's students Toshichika, Toshimine and Toshitsune designed "educational pictures."


 
Illustration by Tsukioka Yoshitoshi from Volume 1 showing Yang Xiang (Yoko) rescuing his father from a tiger, thereby being a paragon of filial piety.

 

Corresponding supplemental colored woodblock print, credited to the artist 年親


Color illustration of natives pointing to a large sailing ship
Volume 5 Brocade Pictures of Moral Education
Yoshitoshi Tsukioka


  

The character is indeed "kō" ('revision' - 'revised by').

I think Sato is right, this character is not 'aratame' as previously assumed. If you look carefully at the strokes in the cartouche in the second print, it seems like 校. Have never seen it before.

So this character means something like revision, editing, proofreading, proof (first-draft) version...

Which artist had precedence? For example, would it mean "By Toshishige, revised by Toshichika",

or would it be "By Toshishige, based on a proof by Toshichika"?

Who Were The Artists

At least four of Tsukioka Yoshitoshi's students were involved including Mizuno Toshikata, Toshichika, Toshimine and Toshitsune 稲野年恒


"Shushin" and Brocade Pictures of Moral Education

Sources: Moral Education in Japan; Implications for American Schools (Thesis Research), Taku Ikemoto,
May 10, 1996 and "Moral education in Japan", Klaus Luhmer, appearing the Journal of Moral Education, vol. 19 no. 3, Oct. 1990, p. 172-182.


In the 1870s the Japanese government embarked on a program of modernization that included the establishment of a new educational system based on Western models. The 1872 Government Order of Education (Gakusei) which established a system of compulsory education stated, "We look forward to a time when there will be no illiteracy in any village house, no illiterate in any home."  Ethics instruction [and moral education]—which used teachings drawn from Japanese, Chinese, and Western sources—became an important component of the new curriculum.

Moral education was called shûshin 修身, which literally means "self-discipline," a word taken from one of the classics of Confucianism.  In the early days of the Meiji era there were no prescribed course of study or textbooks, tests or school marks. It was left to the imagination of the individual teacher how to handle this subject.

In 1879, most "Western sources" were removed from the moral education curriculum as a result of the Imperial Rescript on Education (kyogaku taishi)2, in which the "Emperor lamented the general decay of public morals, for which he blamed the influx of Western learning."  "[M]oral education, based on traditional spirit, was listed at the top of all subjects at elementary schools."

"Teachers were encouraged to enforce strict discipline, calling attention to the Confucianist moral concepts which enjoyed a long tradition in Japan. Shûshin received increased attention and its content and purpose was more clearly defined. A number of guides were published to serve teachers and school administrators as aids for enforcing the national spirit by means of this subject."

This six volume series, produced in 1883 and 1884, likely found classroom use for teaching shûshin.

The 1890 Imperial Rescript on Education (kyoiku chokugo) re-introduced the teaching of Western concepts and clarified the pillars of shûshin as State Shinto, Confucianism and modern political and social ethics, which included respect for the Constitution, observation of laws and calls for dutiful citizens who, should emergency arise, offer themselves "courageously to the State..."

The Rescript was invalidated in 1948.

1 Courage and Silence: A Study of the Life and Color Woodblock Prints of Tsukioka Yoshitoshi: 1839-1952, Roger Start Keyes, p. 546.
2 This 1879 Rescript should not be confused with the more famous 1890 Imperial Rescript on Education (kyoiku chokugo.)
 
Left margin of color woodblock print
明治十六年九月二十六日板權免許
同年十月出版同廿一年十一月三日再版
Meiji 16, 9th month, 26th day, publishing rights license [permit]
Meiji 16, 10th month, publication, Meiji 21, 11th month, 3rd day, second edition (reprinting)
編輯兼出版人
東京下谷區練琳町十四番地
熊夲縣士族
辻敬之 [Tsuji Keiji]普及舎 [Fukyūsha]
 
Colophon from Volume 1 of Brocade Pictures for Moral Education
明治十五年三日一日板權免許
Meiji 15th year, 3rd month, 1st day publishing rights license [permit]

編輯人 Editor
錦絵修身談 Nishiki e shûshindan, maki ichi

   

ddd
to see all six volumes go to http://dl.ndl.go.jp/search/searchResult?viewRestrictedList=0&detailSearchTypeNo=A&publisher=%2F%22%E6%99%AE%E5%8F%8A%E8%88%8E%22%2F&biblevelSearch=1&title=%2F%22%E9%8C%A6%E7%B5%B5%E4%BF%AE%E8%BA%AB%E8%AB%87%22%2F&materialTypeList=0%7C1%7C2%7C4%7C5%7C6%7C7%7C8%7C9%7C16%7C17%7C18%7CI



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